Using Cement By-Pass Dust and Fine Dune Sands in Semi-Flexible Pavement Applications

Mohamed Abd elaziz Shalaby, Metwally Goda Al- Taher, Ahmed Mohamady Abd Allah, Mohamed Ibrahim Attia


In many countries around the world, grout is used to produce semi-flexible pavement mixtures. Grout is formed by mixing cement with water. Additives such as fine silica sand, silica fume, fly ash, and plasticizer are used in grout production to improve the workability and mechanical properties of the grout. In Egypt, fine dune sands and cement by-pass dust are abundantly available. This study aims at evaluating the suitability of using fine dune sands and cement by-pass dust to replace Portland cement in producing grout mixes suitable for semi-flexible pavement applications. To achieve the study objective, three groups of grout mixes were investigated; The first group is control mix using ordinary Portland cement only. The second group composed of ordinary Portland cement with fine sand. The last group composed of ordinary Portland cement with cement by-pass dust. The percentage of water needed for mixing was determined using Marsh funnel. Volumetric properties of grout mixes were then determined. Unconfined compressive strength and indirect tensile strength tests were conducted on samples casted from these mixes at 7 and 28 days of curing to define their mechanical properties. It was found that Replacing 25% of the cement with fine sand dune achieved good viscosity and high compressive and tensile strength, and offered cost savings compared to the control mix. While using of cement by-pass dust resulted in reducing the strength of grout mixes. 


Cement by-pass dust, Fine dune sands, Grout, and Semi-flexible mixtures

Full Text:



Ahlrich, R. C. and Anderton, G. L. "Construction and evaluation of resin modified pavement," Technical Report GL-91-13, U.S. Army, Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS, 1991.

Setyawan A., Zoorob, S.E., Hassan, K.E., 2001, “Design and Investigation of The Properties of High Deformation Resistance Slurry Filled Porous Asphalt Mixes (SFPA)”, Juornal Penelitian Media Teknik Sipil, Edisi Tahun ke 1, No 2, pp.30, July 2001.

Ahlrich and Anderton, "Design, Construction, and Performance of Resin Modified pavement at Fort Campbell Army Airfield", Kentucky, 1994.

Van de Ven, M. F. C., Molenaar, A. A. "Mechanical characterization of combi-layer". Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 73, pp. 1-22, 2004.

Oliveira, J. R. M., Thom, N.H., Zoorob, S. E. "Fracture and fatigue strength of grouted macadams". 10th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements, 2006.

Al-Qadi, I. L., Gouru, H., Weyers, R. E. "Asphalt Portland cement concrete composite laboratory evaluation". Journal of Transport Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 1, January/February, 1994.

Nadiah Md. Husain, Mohamed Rehan Karim , Hilmi B.Mahmud, Suhana Koting, "Effects of Aggregate Gradation on the Physical Properties of Semi-flexible Pavement", Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Article ID 529305, 8 pages, 2014.

Anderton, G. L., "Engineering Properties of Resin Modified Pavement (RMP) for Mechanistic Design". ERDC/GL TR-00-2. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Vicksburg, 2000.

Salem, T. N. and Wahba, A. M., "Improving the Subgrade Characteristics of the Sinai Fine Sand", in Second Gulf Conference on Roads, Abu Dhabi, 2004.

Baghdadi, Z.A., Fartani, M.N. and Sabban, N.A, "Soil Modification by Cement Kiln Dust", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 218-222, 1995.


  • There are currently no refbacks.