Water Balance Modelling for the Sudan's Four Basins of Blue Nile, White Nile, Atbara River, and Main Nile

Mohamed Mohamed Abdellatif Mohamed


This study focuses on estimating the flow discharges along the Nile River and its tributaries in Sudan. Thus, a fifteen years’ data record from the year 1983/1984 to the year 1997/1998 was employed to estimate the transmission losses using the water balance approach. The Nile River and its tributaries are divided into subsequent reaches. The transmission losses are calculated as a percentage of the inflow discharges to each reach. These losses were found to be 1% to 2% on the Blue Nile, 2% to 7% on the White Nile, 1% on Atbara River, 1% to 3% on the Main Nile. A spreadsheet model was then developed to calculate the average annual flow discharges at Dongola Station on the Main Nile. Another data record of nine years was used to validate the model. A good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated discharges. The results of this research could be a part of a mutually acceptable modeling system in the Nile Basin region.


Nile River, Transmission Losses, Water Balance, Spreadsheet Model, Dongola Station, Modeling System

Full Text:



M. Yacoub, M. M. Abdellatif, "Sudan's Water Resources Management in the Context of Wide-Basin Management" Minia International Conference for Agriculture and Irrigation in the Nile Basin Countries, Minia University, El-Minia, Egypt, 2011.

Encyclopedia Britannica, "Nile River", July 2016. Available from:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/415347/Nile-River, 2012.

J.V. Sutcliffe, Y.P. Parks, "The Hydrology of the Nile", IAHS Press, Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxford shire OX10 8BB, UK, 1999.

P.H. Gleick, "Vulnerability of Runoff in the Nile Basin to Climatic Changes. In: Abu Zeid M.A., Biswas A.K. (eds) Climatic Fluctuations and Water Management" Butterworth- Helnemann, pp. 125-128, 1992.

C. Li, Z. Yang, G. Huang, Q. Tan, and Y. Cai, "Analysis of the Net Water Losses in the Main Reach of the Yellow River", International Journal of Environment and Pollution Vol. 45, No. 1/2/3 pp. 249, 2011.

M. Shahin, "Hydrology of the Nile Basin", Elsevier Science Publishing Company, New York, 1985.

J.V. Sutcliffe, Y.P. Parks, "Water Balance of the Sudd and Jonglei Canal", Journal of Hydrological Science Vol. 32, pp.143-159, 1987.

H. E. Hurst, R. P. Black, and Y. M. Simaika, "The Hydrology of the Sadd el Aali", The Nile Basin, vol. XL Government Press, Cairo, 1978.

S. El Zein, "An Approach to Water Conservation: Projects for Reduction of Losses in Some Tributaries of the Nile", Journal of Sudan Engineering Society Vol. 21, 1974.

R.J. Mngodo, "Water Resources for Nile Basin" IWG-Env Joint Work Session on Water Statistics, Vienna 20-22 June 2005.

U. Kim, J. J. Kaluarachchi, and V. U. Smakhtin, "Climate Change Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources of the Upper Blue Nile River Basin, Ethiopia", Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Research Report 126. pp. 27 ISBN 97892-9090-696-4, 2008.

P. Droogers, W.W. Immerzeel, B. Berhanu, "Preliminary Data Compilation for the Nile Basin Decision Support System: FINAL REPORT". Future Water Report 93, 2010.

NBI. "State of the River Nile Basin Report". Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) Publishing, 2012.

The Permanent Joint Technical Commission for Nile Waters. "Flow Forecasting of The Nile Waters at High Aswan Dam", PJTC-NW, Khartoum, August, 2011.

J.E. Nash, and J.V. Sutcliffe, "River Flow Forecasting Through Conceptual Models1: A Discussion of Principles", Journal of Hydrology Vol. 10, pp. 282-29, 1970.

L. Ribbe, "The Nile Basin: Summary of the Basin Characteristics Manual" Institute for Technology and Resources Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Texas, USA, 2014.


  • There are currently no refbacks.